Local Environmental Audit
and Management System
Clean streets, towns, cities, parks and open spaces are important to all of us. They make the places where we live, work and travel more pleasant and ultimately improve our quality of life. Issues such as litter and dog fouling spoil our environment. They give the appearance of places being uncared for and devalue neighbourhoods as locations in which to live and work. Not only this, each year these issues cost Scotland more than £50 million to deal with.
To monitor issues such as litter, dog fouling, flytipping, flyposting and graffiti, and in partnership with Scotland’s local authorities, we carry out annual local environmental quality surveys at a random selection of sites across Scotland every year. This information enables local authorities to be efficient with their local cleaning activity and informs their policies and campaigns to tackle these issues. It also supports the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and the Code of Practice on Litter and Refuse (Scotland) 2018 which require local authorities and others to keep specified land and public roads clean and litter-free.
The approach we use is called the Local Environmental Audit and Management System (or LEAMS) and the audits collect information on litter types and source. Alongside this, other indicators such as weeds, graffiti, flytipping and vandalism, are also recorded to provide an overall picture of every site. Audits are carried out by each local authority as well as by us (to provide independence and validation).
The 2019/20 LEAMS audit
During the 2019/2020 financial year, 93 audits took place, three in each local authority area. In total, 14,257 individual sites were assessed for litter and local environmental quality.
This year’s LEAMS audit highlights some expected and continuing trends:
- Urban areas tend to observe the highest proportion of issues
- Cigarette ends are the most common litter type
- Food and drink packaging litter is common, particularly along roadside verges
- Weed growth and detritus are becoming a more visible detractor from good environmental quality
- Graffiti, flyposting and gum staining are not uncommon in town/city centre areas
- Dog fouling is an issue in high density residential areas
The reasons for these trends are complex and there are many factors which play a part. Local authority budget cuts are one obvious aspect, and one which is not likely to change in the immediate future. However, there are other factors which are also having an impact – an increase in packaging, particularly single-use disposable food and drinks packaging, population dense communities and challenges associated with community cohesion.
1 in 6urban town centres affected by graffiti.
90%of public use litter bins well serviced.
More than halfof local authorities have seen an increase in the number of litter sites since last year.
Moresites had smoking related litter than last year.
Over halfof all sites had some level of weed growth and 1 in 10 had significant weed growth.
About the LEAMS approach
LEAMS uses a standard approach to record litter. Five grades are used to assess the overall presence of litter at an audited site:
|Grade A||No litter|
|Grade B+||Predominantly free of litter – up to three small items|
|Grade B||Predominantly free of litter|
|Grade C||Widespread distribution of litter with minor accumulations|
|Grade D||Heavily littered with significant accumulations|
*Sites that score either a grade C or D are considered unacceptable and require cleaning.
LEAMS records the following:
- Dog fouling
- Royal Mail elastic bands
- Plastic bags
- Coffee cups
- Other: such as newspaper, plastic fragments and chewing gum
- Pedestrian waste: including drink cans, confectionery wrappers, fast food packaging and cigarette butts
- Business waste: any waste that has come directly from a business
- Domestic waste: for example, household packaging or spillage from refuse collection
- Construction waste: such as sand bags and builders’ rubble
- Animal faeces: any type of animal faeces
- Detritus: such as twigs, leaves, grass and sand which can trap litter
- Staining: for example, from chewing gum
- Litter bins: the number of litter bins is recorded, as well as whether the bin is full / overflowing (these are bins which are over three quarters full)
Type of local authority
To enable easier comparison, local authorities are grouped together into four ‘clubs’. These are based on population and the distribution of population. Club 1 authorities are generally more rural, clubs 2 and 3 are mixed rural/urban (with club 3 having more urban areas than club 2) and club 4 covers the most urban authorities.
|Local authority clubs|
|Club 1||Eilean Siar, Argyll and Bute, Shetland Islands, Highland, Orkney Islands, Scottish Borders, Dumfries and Galloway, Aberdeenshire|
|Club 2||Perth and Kinross, Stirling, Moray, South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire, East Lothian, North Ayrshire, Fife|
|Club 3||Angus, Clackmannanshire, Midlothian, South Lanarkshire, Inverclyde, Renfrewshire, West Lothian, East Renfrewshire|
|Club 4||North Lanarkshire, Falkirk, East Dunbartonshire, Aberdeen City, City of Edinburgh, West Dunbartonshire, Dundee City, Glasgow City|
Street cleanliness and litter-related results
Scotland-wide street cleanliness
Since last year, the overall Scotland-wide street cleanliness score has gone down by 0.6%. While it is positive that there has been an improvement, this is still the second lowest score recorded in the last ten years. This means that there are far too many sites in Scotland spoilt by unacceptable amounts of litter, which devalue our neighbourhoods and cost money to clean up.
Common litter types
Wider local environmental quality results
As well as litter-related issues, there are a number of other factors which can negatively impact the places in which we live and work, and which we record as part of the LEAMS process:
The last five years of national LEAMS programme have continued to highlight the areas that are in the most need for intervention to improve the quality of the local environmental and have also reported the fluctuating trends at a more local level. The current year shows that:
- Urban areas tend to have the highest proportion of issues.
- Cigarette-related litter (predominantly butts) is the most common litter type.
- Food and drink packaging litter is an issue, particularly along roadside verges.
- Weed growth and detritus are becoming a more visible detractor from good environmental quality.
- Graffiti, flyposting and gum staining are more common in town/city centre areas.
- Littering by the general public is the main reason that litter ends up in the environment.
- Public use litter bins which are at capacity and overflowing are not uncommon and contributing to the litter stream.
- Presentation and collection of domestic refuse was observed at times as an issue with escaped waste.
- Dog fouling is an issue in high density residential areas.
Taking a longer-term view, it is clear that achieving a substantial improvement in our local environmental quality in the years to come will require concerted and collaborative action on the part of all key stakeholders. We are currently working in partnership with Zero Waste Scotland, local authorities and other stakeholders on a new litter monitoring system (LMS).
In addition, as noted in our recent report on the wider issues associated with local environmental quality, we urgently need:-
- A litter summit in early 2021 to agree a collective approach across sectors to tackling this issue.
- A commitment to publish a new national strategy by the end of 2021 at the latest.
- Sustained national campaigns with consistent messaging.
- A programme of education and behaviour change to create a Litter-ate Scotland.
- Establishment of a behaviour change innovation fund to develop and test new infrastructure solutions.
- A review of the failing model of enforcement.
- A national, collective network of people, organisations, communities and agencies working together to jointly reverse the decline.
We will continue to promote, share and support partnership working in order to deal with these wider issues and in particular reverse these local environmental quality trends that have been highlighted in our LEAMS audits and findings. We will also look forward to continuing to support auditing, monitoring and validation; working in partnership with local authorities as the transition from LEAMS to LMS moves forward.